Prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in youngsters and adolescents


Falls, sports activities accidents interpersonal violence and highway visitors accidents are reported to be the primary causes of maxillofacial fractures in youngsters and adolescents. A assessment in 2017  (Barbosa et al) reported highway visitors accidents to be the primary explanation for maxillofacial fractures in youngsters and adolescents.

The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma by totally different causes in youngsters and adolescents.


Searches have been performed within the Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, Scopus and the Internet of Science with no language restrictions. Cross-sectional and pro- and retrospective cohort research reporting the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma primarily based on aetiology with a prognosis primarily based on scientific data in youngsters/adolescents aged 0 to 19 years of age together with 30 or extra instances have been thought of.  Two reviewers independently chosen research and extracted information with high quality being assessed utilizing a modified model of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Maxillo- facial trauma was categorised as highway visitors accidents (RTAs), violence (assaults, fights, use of weapons, and/or firearms) , falls, sports activities, and different aetiologies (animal bites, home accident, play, abuse and many others).The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma was analysed by calculation of the occasion charges and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


  • 58 research have been included.
  • The variety of instances within the research ranged between 37 to 183,336.
  • The most common explanation for maxillofacial trauma general have been highway visitors accidents adopted by falls (see desk under).
Aetiology Occasion charge (95percentCI)
Street visitors accidents 33.8% (28.3% to 39.9%)
Falls 20.7% (18.4% to 23.3%)
Violence 9.9% (7.8% to 12.4%)
Sports activities 8.1% (6.3% to 10.3%)
Different 9.7% (7.8% to 12.0%)
  • The occasion charges for the primary trauma aetiologies by area are proven within the tables under.

Street visitors Accidents

  No of research Occasion charge (95percentCI)
African 6 48.3% (34.8% to 62.1%)
Asian 28 29.9% (23.1% to 37.8%)
European 5 24.8% (8.7% to 53.1%)
North American 9 34.1% (19.7% to 52.2%)
South American 9 29.8% (14.0% to 52.5%)
General 58 33.8% (28.3% to 39.9%)


  No of research Occasion charge (95percentCI)
African 5 32.1% (19.3% to 48.4%)
Asian 29 44.1% (37.0% to 51.5%)
European 5 33.9% (20.6% to 50.4%)
North American 9 11.1% (9.3% to 13.2%)
South American 9 34% (27.7% to 44.7%)
General 58 20.7% (18.4% to 23.3%)


  No of research Occasion charge (95percentCI)
African 6 11.1% (6.8% to 17.5%)
Asian 26 5.3% (3.2% to eight.7%)
European 5 7.9% (4.5% to 13.6%)
North American 9 27.6% (14.8% to 45.5%)
South American 9 11.2% (7.0% to 17.4%)
General 55 9.9% (7.8% to 12.4%)

Sports activities

  No of research Occasion charge (95percentCI)
African 3 8.0% (2.8% to twenty.7%)
Asian 20 8.5% (6.1% to 11.6%)
European 5 9.0% (4.8% to 16.4%)
North American 4 13.3% (6.2% to 26.1%)
South American 9 3.9% (1.9% to 7.8%)
General 55 8.1% (6.3% to 10.3%)

Different aetiologies

  No of research Occasion charge (95percentCI)
African 6 4.5% (1.4% to 13.2%)
Asian 29 7.9% (5.6% to 11.0%)
European 5 13.3% (7.1% to 23.7%)
North American 9 12.2% (8.3% to 17.7%)
South American 9 10.8% (5.6% to 19.8%)
General 55 9.7% (7.8% to 12.0%)


The authors concluded: –

Street visitors accidents have been essentially the most prevalent aetiology of maxillofacial trauma on the planet, adopted by falls, violence, and sports activities amongst youngsters and adolescents.


No protocol for the assessment was registered or revealed. A great vary of databases was searched with no language restriction.  The authors report assessing research high quality utilizing the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and point out that the included research have been methodologically comparable though they don’t current extra detailed data in the primary paper. The 2017 assessment by Barbosa included 27 research in contrast with the 58 research on this new assessment. A majority of the research come from Asia with few research from Europe and Africa and it’s attention-grabbing to notice that an earlier multi-country assessment (Dental Elf – 5th Jan 2015) reported that assaults and falls have been the primary explanation for maxillofacial trauma, though this research concerned broader age-groups. Variation throughout the age teams within the obtainable research was one of many points contributing to the heterogeneity within the research included and a transfer to agreeing standardised age teams could be useful for future. There may be additionally some concern round categorisation of the primary aetiologies in research and using the ‘different causes’ classification.


Major Paper  

Mohammadi H, Roochi MM, Heidar H, Garajei A, Dallband M, Sadeghi M, Fatahian R, Tadakamadla SK. A meta-analysis to judge the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma attributable to numerous etiologies amongst youngsters and adolescents. Dent Traumatol. 2023 Oct;39(5):403-417. doi: 10.1111/edt.12845. Epub 2023 Apr 19. PMID: 37073864.

Different references

Barbosa KGN, de Macedo Bernardino Í, d’Avila S, Ferreira EFE, Ferreira RC. Systematic assessment and meta-analysis to find out the proportion of maxillofacial trauma ensuing from totally different etiologies amongst youngsters and adolescents. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Jun;21(2):131-145. doi: 10.1007/s10006-017-0610-9. Epub 2017 Mar 9. PMID: 28280940.

Dental Elf – 5th Jan 2015

Maxillofacial trauma: assaults and falls the primary causes in Europe

Dental Elf 3rd Might 2021

Orofacial trauma in wheeled non-motorsports

Dental Elf – 19th Apr 2021

Facial trauma in motorcyclists and helmet use

Dental Elf – 26th Jun 2023

Helmet use and maxillofacial accidents resulting from bicycle and scooter accidents

Image Credit

Photograph by Clark Van Der Beken on Unsplash




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