the “Gone Too Quickly” framework


Folks with psychological sickness have a considerably shorter life expectancy than the final inhabitants. Estimates are as excessive as 20 years of life misplaced prematurely in situations equivalent to schizophrenia and bipolar dysfunction (World Well being Organisation, 2018). Suicide and bodily well being comorbidities are the main causes of untimely mortality on this inhabitants. Pressing motion is required to sort out this surprising inequality.

In current many years, efforts to enhance normal inhabitants life expectancy have had success – however such efforts haven’t diminished disparities for these experiencing psychological sickness and, actually, proof suggests the issue is worsening (Hayes et al., 2017).

On this article (printed yesterday in The Lancet Psychiatry), Rory O’Connor and colleagues (2023) put ahead the “Gone Too Quickly” framework – which identifies ‘priorities for motion to stop untimely mortality related to psychological sickness and psychological misery’. The Framework’s objective is to:

mobilise the interpretation of proof into prioritised actions to scale back untimely mortality by figuring out key causes, gaps in information, and current or promising options.

Earlier efforts sometimes conceptualised untimely mortality as a result of suicide and bodily well being comorbidities as separate points or domains, right here, nevertheless, O’Connor and colleagues uniquely mix each beneath one framework with the potential to scale back disparities related to each.

Suicide and physical health comorbidities are leading causes of premature mortality in people with mental illness.

Suicide and bodily well being comorbidities are main causes of untimely mortality in individuals with psychological sickness.


The charity, MQ Psychological Well being Analysis, convened 40 worldwide specialists together with individuals with lived/residing expertise, and clinicians, researchers, and policymakers from broad disciplines.

A committee of specialists generated a worksheet to collect info on doubtlessly vital contributing elements and options. The worksheet was then accomplished by every professional and outcomes analysed to establish themes to information dialogue in a collection of on-line workshops for every area (suicide and bodily well being comorbidity).

Within the first workshop, members reviewed and ranked the possibly vital elements and options. Prime-ranking objects had been then additional ranked by the committee, specializing in influence (depth/breadth) and feasibility (viability, funding curiosity and availability) to generate total rankings.

In a second workshop, additional refinements had been made, supplemented by literature looking out. Options, related to each domains, had been recognized through the evaluation.


Twelve key threat elements and mechanisms had been recognized throughout themes that had been discovered to considerably overlap in affiliation with untimely mortality as a result of each suicide and bodily well being comorbidities.

Multifactorial nature of threat

It’s recognised that threat is not as a result of a single issue, however as an alternative a mix of interactions between organic and social or environmental elements equivalent to poverty or marginalisation which will result in emotions of worthlessness or social dis-connection that influence stress skilled by a person.

Social determinants, structural inequalities, and social context

The authors acknowledge that there are main gaps in understanding the context and occasions that happen within the time between experiencing structural inequality, equivalent to unemployment, lack of social community, or homelessness, which will end in untimely mortality. It’s recognized that folks with psychological sickness are extra prone to inequalities and deprived by a scarcity of social help and entry to providers. It was highlighted that folks from racialised communities are extra prone to social isolation and thus, untimely mortality.

Volitional elements are described as accessing strategies of suicide and publicity to others’ suicide, nevertheless, analysis wants to handle the transfer from ideation to aim or acts. That is additionally linked to how social media and media channels body suicide.

Stigma, marginalisation, racism, and distrust

In some international locations, suicide is unlawful and criminalised and, thus, much more extremely stigmatised. The overview notes that that is counterproductive and limits accessibility of providers and help-seeking by people prone to untimely mortality. They recognise that healthcare approaches to suicide want to incorporate the results of social and political attitudes and the way untimely mortality relies by social inequality. It is usually highlighted that sexual, gender and ethnic minorities amongst different minoritised teams are extra weak to suicide threat and the function of racism and colonialism shouldn’t be discredited particularly within the context of help-seeking in healthcare and the stigmatisation of psychological well being extra extensively and ought to be prioritised in analysis.

Particular person elements

Experiences equivalent to adversarial childhood experiences (ACEs), behavioural habits and youth experiences are recognized as impacting on suicide threat. Nonetheless, the mechanisms behind them are wide-ranging from organic to social, which all want additional exploration. Elevated bodily well being issues, for instance, cardiovascular sickness linked to behavioural habits equivalent to smoking, eating regimen and sleep ought to be thought of equally too. An attention-grabbing issue highlighted on this space is faith which has various impacts relying on having minoritised traits (i.e., LGBTQ+ standing).

Private well being influenced by environmental publicity and the intestine microbiome is an space recognized as receiving rightfully elevated analysis focus by means of the affiliation of the gut-brain axis with the chance of bodily comorbidities. Genetic elements and influences had been additionally discovered to be potential threat elements and topic to analysis exploration.

Multimorbidities and alcohol and drug misuse

The overview highlights that having a number of diseases and misuse of gear are extensively recognized to extend the chance of untimely mortality, notably in extreme psychological diseases, and different stigmatised diseases, equivalent to HIV, which can be extra prevalent in creating nations. The larger the variety of diseases, the larger the chance of untimely mortality, and it’s highlighted that some prescription medicines might improve the chance of secondary diseases by defending in opposition to untimely mortality from the first sickness. That is additionally influenced by unequal entry to medicines from country-to-country, which then impacts well being outcomes.

A variety of psychological diseases have been related to suicide threat and the authors notice that some diseases equivalent to PTSD are extra vital for suicide makes an attempt than ideation which requires analysis to focus individually on try and ideation.

Entry to care: silos, fragmentation, gaps, and high quality

The authors recognise the problematic nature of separating bodily and psychological well being care. Bodily well being signs are sometimes ignored in psychological well being sufferers and vice versa, and there may be additionally an historic underfunding or lack of funding for psychological well being providers in some international locations. The interpretation of psychiatric follow from the worldwide North to the worldwide South might additional worsen well being outcomes by failing to recognise the religious and non secular elements of therapeutic in addition to the native context of well being. It is usually famous that rurality and obstacles to entry are linked to elevated mortality which implies that populations are receiving differing qualities of care. Nonetheless, they spotlight that even the place healthcare is free and accessible, enchancment in outcomes shouldn’t be vital, subsequently adequate useful resource and analysis is crucial to advance intervention, prevention and enhance outcomes.

The Gone Too Soon framework and the shared social-ecological risk factors and mechanisms to tackle inequality

The Gone Too Quickly framework and the shared social-ecological threat elements and mechanisms to sort out inequality. (Determine 2, O’Connor et al, 2023). [Click to view larger figure]

‘Actionable options’

Because of the recognized threat elements, the authors suggest actionable options with examples that might be applied.

Integration of psychological and bodily well being care

This consists of bringing bodily and psychological well being care collectively and having collaborative care for individuals with a number of situations. Enhancing the coaching of healthcare workers and constructing capability inside healthcare is vital to effectively deal with psychological and bodily well being issues collectively. This can even enhance entry and the authors notably recommend enchancment in entry to main care providers. Routine screening, early identification and therapy will normalise and permit for the efficient detection of comorbidities.

Prioritisation of prevention whereas strengthening therapy

A multi-disciplinary strategy by stopping entry to technique of suicide and decriminalisation of suicide in international locations the place it’s unlawful. This can be by means of tackling stigma by means of social media and engagement with the general public. Stopping secondary diseases (e.g., from smoking) by means of interventions that handle behavioural habits, in addition to steering within the office to advertise wholesome workplaces. Public well being consciousness and schooling about group interventions are listed as prevention strategies while enhancing entry to efficient remedies will handle each prevention and therapy.

Optimising interventions throughout social and environmental ranges

This addresses the multi-level elements which can be linked to untimely mortality. Optimising interventions by means of addressing individual- to structural-level points will enable for higher interventions and implementation. Addressing earnings inequality, decreasing stigma and discrimination and growing funding in psychological well being will allow equitable entry for extra individuals. Utilizing digital alternatives and large knowledge to enhance psychological well being interventions is highlighted for instance to realize optimisation, in addition to a greater understanding of the interactions between organic and psychosocial threat elements.

The authors highlight the need to prioritise prevention over intervention, as well as optimise multi-level interventions to address health inequalities.

The authors spotlight the necessity to prioritise prevention over intervention and optimise multi-level interventions to handle well being inequalities.


The authors spotlight that putting residing and lived experiences on the centre of implementation will optimise uptake and interventions which can be greatest suited to individuals. Collaboration and involvement are required at public well being, governmental, and group degree in order that implementation is influenced by all related stakeholders and is pivotal to driving enchancment on this space.

The authors conclude that there are a number of causes to handle untimely mortality and suicide in individuals with psychological sickness together with the financial benefit of a wholesome inhabitants. Making certain equal human rights and laws that protects these residing with or prone to psychological well being issues will go some solution to equitable look after at-risk teams and presenting actionable options that may be applied globally will assist forestall untimely mortality and people affected by suicide.

Collaboration and co-production with experts by experience are pivotal to addressing premature mortality in people with mental illness.

Collaboration and co-production with specialists by expertise are pivotal to addressing untimely mortality in individuals with psychological sickness.

Strengths and limitations

A serious energy of this paper is the collaborative interdisciplinary enter from a variety of stakeholders together with residing and lived expertise advisors. This enabled a multi-perspective strategy overlaying vital analysis from the organic, social and psychological sciences linked to each suicide and bodily well being comorbidities at a number of socio-ecological ranges. A variety of analysis from creating international locations equivalent to analysis in South Africa, India, and Uganda is talked about within the overview. In addition they acknowledge the variations in tradition, healthcare and entry for individuals in low- and middle-incomes international locations within the overview.

The vast majority of the 40 specialists had been from high-income international locations, and specialists in psychological well being, and the entire course of was carried out within the English language. A extra in depth inclusion of a larger variety of voices, people representing different disciplines, and wider public session might have yielded vital completely different insights and priorities.

An additional energy was the conceptualisation of “psychological misery” along with “psychological sickness”, recognising that suicide specifically impacts individuals alongside a continuum of psychological misery, not simply these with recognized situations.

A key precedence for the authors was world inclusion and variety. Useful resource allocation for subsequent implementation efforts will have to be equitable so as to not exacerbate already current disparities, and options will have to be tailor-made to the native contexts to make sure feasibility and acceptability.

“Funding curiosity” was together with as an indicator of feasibility when rating potential options. While that is pragmatic, it highlights that funding priorities might not at all times align with the priorities of affected communities – which may perpetuate some inequalities. It could have been attention-grabbing to see what the outcomes would have appeared like with out the consideration of funding.

While this framework has gone a way in highlighting threat elements and actionable options to sort out untimely mortality, and is a giant step ahead, it’s clear that there’s nonetheless some solution to go to realize implementation and improved outcomes for individuals with psychological sickness and misery.

The inclusion of more consultants from low- and middle-income settings may have allowed different priorities to emerge.

The inclusion of extra consultants from low- and middle-income settings might have allowed completely different priorities to emerge.

Implications for follow

Though efforts from inside psychological well being contexts are elementary, it’s also important {that a} collaborative interdisciplinary strategy is taken to handle the “multifactorial nature of threat” for untimely mortality as a result of suicide and bodily well being comorbidities.

Accordingly, efforts to handle untimely mortality require a multi-systems strategy. Governments, funders, and policymakers have to acknowledge this as a precedence space and dedicate adequate funding.

Totally different international locations might want to bear in mind their very own native tradition and socio-economic elements when implementing options recognized on this framework.

As PhD college students, it’s encouraging to see the collaborative strategy taken on this overview – which highlights the energy of partaking a number of stakeholders, together with lived and residing expertise, to sort out public well being challenges equivalent to this and offers an important instance for the proposed implementation of the same strategy.

Implementing this framework will require countries to consider their socioeconomic state and local culture.

Implementing this framework would require international locations to contemplate their socioeconomic state and native tradition.

Assertion of pursuits

Alvin Richards-Belle is a PhD pupil within the UCL Division of Psychiatry supervised by a co-author of the article, however this weblog was written independently.

Humma Andleeb can also be a PhD pupil at UCL nevertheless there aren’t any conflicts of curiosity famous.


Major paper

O’Connor, R., Worthman, C. M., Abanga, M., Athanassopoulou, N., Boyce, N., Chan F. L., et al. (2023) Gone Too Quickly: priorities for motion to stop untimely mortality related to psychological sickness and psychological misery. The Lancet Psychiatry.  Printed: Might 11, 2023 DOI:

Different references

World Well being Organisation. (2018). Administration of bodily well being situations in adults with extreme psychological problems: WHO pointers. World Well being Group.

Hayes, J. F., Marston, L., Walters, Ok., King, M. B., & Osborn, D. P. J. (2017). Mortality hole for individuals with bipolar dysfunction and schizophrenia: UK-based cohort examine 2000–2014. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 211(3), 175–181.

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